Batteries are categorized into primary and secondary batteries. Now, what is primary and secondary batteries? The former is a type of battery that is once used can’t be used further by recharging. The second can be recharge after using it and can use it further. The primary battery includes alkaline batteries, mercury batteries, carbon batteries and Silver-Oxide batteries the secondary battery includes Lead-Acid batteries and Lithium batteries.
Now we will move further to explain the types of batteries.
- Alkaline Batteries:
This battery can be recharged. These have high energy density with a long-lasting property. The name ‘’Alkaline’’ is given to this battery is because alkaline is used in it as an electrolyte. The method of working is the zinc powder act as anode and the manganese dioxide as a cathode. The electrolyte used for this battery is potassium hydroxide. The alkaline cell provides more energy if we compare it with a zinc-chloride cell of the similar size. The energy is five times more than the later battery.. The alkaline cell has the voltage value and current supply is 1.5V and 700mA.
- Zinc-Carbon batteries:
The second name for zinc-carbon batteries is a dry cell. The name is given because electrolyte that is used in these batteries is dry in nature. These cells come in a carbon rod act as a cathode which is cover by the mixture of carbon powder and manganese oxide. This is for boosting the conductivity. This mixture is then covered with a zinc container that works as the anode. Now come to the electrolyte, the electrolyte of Zinc-Carbon batteries are composed o ammonium chloride and zinc chloride. The value of voltage for these batteries is very low which less than 1.5V. The battery has long lasting ability that can be used for decades. These batteries work best in normal temperature but left working at low temperatures.
- Lead-Acid Batteries:
This is the second category of batteries that can be recharged after using it. These were invented in the 1980s. These types of batteries are used in automobiles because of its heavy weight which can complete the needs of those automobiles. The charged and discharged state changes the composition of the Lead-Acid battery.
The Pb work as a negative and PbO2 as positive in electrodes. The electrolyte in this battery is H2SO4 which is in charged form and PbSO4 and water in discharge form.
- Mercury Batteries:
These are non-rechargeable after using it. It is composed of mercuric oxide with manganese dioxide. The voltage of these batteries is constant which 1.35V with the energy level of 5%. These batteries are not so frequently used because of its low output voltage moreover, the mercury use in it is toxic and can cause harm to human body.
- Silver-Oxide batteries:
They are very expensive that can be long-lasting as compared to alkaline batteries. There is a variety of large and small batteries which are used for low current appliances. The cathode used in it is silver oxide while the anode is zinc. The electrolyte is alkaline potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide.